Choosing a Method
Choosing a Method
Methods for using Grahall’s Omnibus Job Analysis System GoJas vary based on the position and resources the organization has. The different methods are not unique to GoJas but are methods used by job analysts for decades. They are as follows:
The Observation Method – The direct observation system is used to access the knowledge and skillsets required by the job of incumbents based on the standard work-related procedures developed by the organization.
Interview Group or Individual Method – In the interview method, the individual’s performance is directly assessed through communication on direct issues. Here the job analyst interviews the incumbent and collects information about their tasks as well as how they are coping with them.
Employee Job Diary Method – This method requires the job holders to record in detail their activities periodically, such as hourly or daily or work shift. At the end of the specified period, the employee records all the activities they had undertaken during that period.
Technical Conference or Conference of Experts Method – Under this method, information about the job characteristics is collected from the “experts” who possess extensive knowledge about a job with the help of a conference or meeting.
Open-Ended Structured Questionnaire Method – With this method, the organization designs a structured questionnaire with open-ended questions. In this method, a questionnaire with a series of questions on job duties, responsibilities and knowledge, decision making, and the other “job characteristics” is prepared and circulated among all jobholders.
Structured Closed-End Questionnaire Method – In this method, a questionnaire is prepared to obtain specific detailed job information, and it is circulated among some or all jobholders. The questionnaire asks the job holder to supply several types of information sought in job analysis.
Job Performance Method – In this method, the job analyst performs the job in question and thus receives first-hand experience of the job’s factors, including physical hazards, physical demands, emotional pressure, and mental requirements. This methodology is limited to positions that have low customer impact and or are not highly technical.
Checklist and Rating Scales Method – The checklist is a job analysis method that creates an inventory of job elements. An analyst can obtain information about the reason for that particular position, the working conditions, decision-making processes, key responsibility areas, relationships, knowledge, organizations, skills, and experience. The checklist and rating scales are the most common indicators used to evaluate performance based on an individual’s score on specific factors.
Examining Manuals/Reference Materials Method – Manuals/reference materials that include various instructions, forms, procedures, and job descriptions are essential to the job analyst.
Combination of Methods – Generally, an analyst covering a significant portion of an organization does not use one job analysis method for gathering information. Instead, he or she will use a combination of methods.
Criteria for Deciding on the Methods to Gather Data
To determine what method or combination of methods are right for your organization, start with a careful review of the advantages and challenges for each method which can be found in the research study and book under the resources tab on this website.
Understand that the job analysis method and the job analysis system need to be matched and will determine the overall success or failure of the job analysis effort for the organization. In addition to the matching of system and method, other criteria that will impact the decision about the data/information gathering method are the size of the organization and your desired “return on the information.”